The word “kebab” appeared in Russia in the 18th century as a borrowing from the Crimean language, and underwent significant changes. The words “Shish” meant skewer, and “shishlik” literally “string on a skewer”. There is still controversy over the birthplace of the kebab, but despite this, everyone is convinced that it was born in the East. Many believe that the kebab appeared in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and the Caucasus. People engaged in animal husbandry lived in these territories. The inaccuracy of the name of the dish led to the fact that “shashlik” started to denote different dishes. Today, people call any meat cooked on charcoal ember as kebabs. In fact, “Shashlik” is not just grilled meat, but a dish cooked according to a special technology and rules, in other words, a whole gastronomic ceremony. Shashlik as a dish is known since the 18th century, and was called “Burama”. In the “Royal dishes” book of the 16-18th century it is written that “Burama” is made from duck, chicken, hare or other meat. In Armenia, kebabs are called “haravats”, in Azerbaijan - “kabob”, in India and Pakistan - “kebab”, in Turkey - “shish-kabob”. Despite the different names, all these dishes are cooked on skewers. In the West and in America, “Burama” turned into “Ugirma”, where meat cooked on charcoal is called “barbecue”. In Africa, the aborigines prepare kebabs from the lungs and liver. In Georgia, they are wrapped in dry grape leaves and are called “mtsvadi”. In Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, grilled meat on the coals is called “satay”. In Latin America, kebabs are also cooked; they just call this dish differently. In particular, in
In Brazil it is called “shuraska” (large pieces of meat strung on a thick skewer and fried over an open fire). In Japan, India and Indonesia, meat is strung on spikes (sharp wooden sticks), fried in hot oil, then dipped in sauce and served on the table. In Japan, kebabs are mainly made from seafood. The tradition of cooking kebabs from marinated meat is common in the East. Small pieces of meat are first marinated, and then strung on skewers in many countries, from Morocco to Afghanistan. This dish in North Africa is called “brochettes”; there they cook shashlik on saxaul and palm branches. Korean cuisine has an “orikogikui dish” (duck kebab). Shashlik - a dish designed for friendly gatherings, leisurely meetings with relatives. Its companions are fresh tomatoes, or baked vegetables, greens, cheese, seasonings, scallion or onions, musallas wine. This dish should be enjoyed and not mixed with other foods. Before cooking, the meat has been marinated. The oldest folk method is marinating meat with vinegar or musallas wine. Crimean Tatars marinate meat in sour milk. Today, various types of marinades are used - with mayonnaise, ketchup, beer, and various juices (in particular, with pomegranate juice). If we talk about the climatic conditions that influenced the popularization of shashlik in Bukhara region, then it should be noted that this region is the second hottest after Surkhandarya. The hot climate and salty water of Bukhara had a direct impact on the taste of kebab in Gijduvan style.